Public climate data

To help you get started, we've compiled a variety of datasets and APIs from which to gain inspiration. Many of these datasets have already been cleaned and normalized, so they are ready to be explored using AI tools. The use of these datasets is often intended for research purposes only. If you want to use the data in your startup, be sure to read any associated license agreements to understand if there are commercial restrictions. Also note that you are not restricted to basing your idea on the data sets below. You may discover other open source data sets that inspire your creativity or you may bring your own proprietary data sets if you wish.

And if there’s a data set you think we should add to the list, please send it to us.

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  1. Categories of data
  2. Data sources: most well-known
  3. Non-weather climate-related APIs
  4. Data sources: hidden gems

Data categories

Public climate data available on the internet can be categorized into various types or categories based on the aspects of climate they cover and the purposes they serve. Here are some of the main categories of public climate data:

1. Observational Data: This category includes data collected from various sources, such as weather stations, satellites, buoys, and other instruments. Observational data covers parameters like temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, and sea level.

2. Climate Model Data: Climate models are computer simulations that project future climate conditions based on various scenarios and assumptions. Climate model data provides predictions of temperature changes, precipitation patterns, and other climate variables over different time frames.

3. Historical Climate Data: Historical climate data comprises long-term records of climate variables collected over past decades or centuries. This data is crucial for understanding climate trends and changes over time.

4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data: This category includes data on emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases. It often involves national or regional inventories of greenhouse gas emissions.

5. Sea Ice and Glacier Data: Data related to the extent and volume of sea ice and glaciers are critical for monitoring climate change impacts on polar regions.

6. Oceanographic Data: Oceanographic data covers various aspects of the ocean, including sea surface temperature, sea level, ocean currents, salinity, and ocean acidification.

7. Satellite Remote Sensing Data: Satellites provide valuable data on various climate-related parameters, such as land cover changes, sea surface temperature, atmospheric composition, and vegetation indices.

8. Climate Indices and Extremes: These datasets focus on climate indices that characterize specific climate patterns or extreme weather events, like the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index or heatwave frequency.

9. Climate Adaptation and Resilience Data: Data related to vulnerability, risk assessments, and adaptation strategies are crucial for understanding and mitigating the impacts of climate change.

10. Climate Policy and Agreements Data: This category includes data related to international climate agreements, national climate policies, and emissions reduction targets.

11. Climate Education and Outreach Data: Educational resources and outreach materials that present climate data in an accessible and informative way for the general public and educators.

12. Climate and Weather APIs (Application Programming Interfaces): APIs provide programmatic access to real-time weather and climate data, allowing developers to build climate-related applications and integrate climate data into their projects.

13. Climate Research and Publications: This category encompasses academic research papers, reports, and publications that present and analyze climate data and research findings.

14. Climate Web Services and Portals: Platforms that offer a centralized hub for accessing and exploring various climate datasets and tools.

These categories are not exhaustive, and some datasets may overlap multiple categories. The availability and accessibility of public climate data play a crucial role in climate research, policymaking, and public awareness efforts related to climate change and its impacts.

Data sources: most well-known

1. Climate Data Gateway (CDG): The CDG is a portal that allows users to access climate data from the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and other sources. It provides data related to climate models, observations, and projections.Website:

2. NASA's Earthdata: NASA provides a wealth of Earth science data, including climate-related datasets. Their Earthdata Search platform allows you to explore and access various datasets related to climate change, atmospheric conditions, and more.URL:

3. National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI): NCEI is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and is one of the largest archives of climate and weather data in the world. They offer access to a wide range of climate-related datasets and statistics.URL:

4. Climate Data Online (CDO) - NOAA: CDO is another resource from NOAA, providing access to historical climate data. You can find information on temperature, precipitation, and other climate-related variables.URL:

5. World Bank Climate Change Knowledge Portal: This portal offers data related to climate change, including historical and projected climate data, emissions, and climate risk assessments for different regions.URL:

6. European Climate Data Explorer: This platform provides access to various climate datasets and projections for Europe. It includes data on temperature, precipitation, sea level rise, and more.URL:

7. Global Change Data Lab: This platform offers various datasets related to climate change, including historical emissions, temperature records, and carbon dioxide levels.URL:

8. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): The UNFCCC website provides access to national greenhouse gas inventories submitted by countries, along with other climate-related data and statistics.URL:

9. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Data Distribution Centre: The IPCC Data Distribution Centre provides climate data used in IPCC assessment reports, including climate models, scenarios, and observational data.URL:

10. Berkeley Earth: Berkeley Earth provides datasets on surface temperature records, land and ocean temperature indices, and other climate-related metrics.URL:

11. Climate Data Initiative - U.S. Government: The Climate Data Initiative is an effort by the U.S. government to make climate-related data more accessible to the public. It offers a variety of datasets from different federal agencies.URL:

12. European Environment Agency (EEA) Climate Data Viewer: The EEA Climate Data Viewer provides access to climate indicators and data for Europe.URL:

13. Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store: C3S Climate Data Store offers climate data, climate reanalysis, and seasonal forecasts for various regions.URL:

14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Climate Change: NASA's Global Climate Change website provides information and data on climate science, impacts, and solutions.URL:

15. Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) - NOAA: GHCN is a dataset containing historical climate records from thousands of weather stations worldwide.URL:

16. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Climate Normals: The WMO Climate Normals provide long-term averages of temperature and precipitation data for various locations.URL:

17. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC): CDIAC offers data related to carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gases.URL:

18. UK Met Office Hadley Centre: The Hadley Centre provides climate data and research from the UK's national meteorological service.URL:

19. Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN): CIESIN offers environmental and socioeconomic data, including climate-related datasets.URL:

20. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Data: NREL provides renewable energy and climate-related data for research and analysis.URL:

21. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Climate Change Indicators: The EPA's Climate Change Indicators report tracks changes in the Earth's climate and related impacts.URL:

22. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change: USGS provides data on climate change impacts on ecosystems, wildlife, and landscapes.URL:

23. European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative: ESA's Climate Change Initiative offers various datasets related to climate change, including sea level, glaciers, and land cover.URL:

24. Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS): GLDAS provides global land surface data, including soil moisture and temperature, to support climate research and water resource management.URL:

25. NOAA Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) Climate Data: PSL offers a range of climate datasets, including atmospheric and oceanic data.URL:

26. Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED): GFED provides data on global fire emissions, which are relevant to climate change and air quality research.URL:

27. Open Climate Data Initiative (OCDI): OCDI aims to promote open data related to climate and support data-driven solutions for climate challenges.URL:

28. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC): NSIDC provides data on snow, ice, glaciers, and polar regions, critical for understanding climate change impacts.URL:

29. International Energy Agency (IEA) CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion: IEA provides data on CO2 emissions from fuel combustion for various countries and sectors.URL:

30. World Resources Institute (WRI) Climate Watch: Climate Watch offers climate-related data and visualizations to support climate action.URL:

31. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) - NOAA: CPC provides climate forecasts and outlooks for various time scales.URL:

Non-weather climate-related APIs

1. Climate Data API - National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA):   - Data Offered: NASA's Climate Data API provides access to a wide range of climate-related data, including atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, land cover changes, sea level rise, and climate projections from climate models.   - API Documentation:

2. Climate Data API - World Bank Climate Change Knowledge Portal:   - Data Offered: The World Bank's Climate Change Knowledge Portal API offers climate data, historical climate projections, vulnerability assessments, and climate risk profiles for different regions worldwide.   - API Documentation:

3. Global Carbon Budget API:   - Data Offered: The Global Carbon Budget API provides access to data on global carbon dioxide emissions, fossil fuel emissions, land-use changes, and carbon sinks.   - API Documentation:

4. World Ocean Database API: - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA):   - Data Offered: The World Ocean Database API provides access to oceanographic and climatic data, including sea surface temperature, ocean salinity, ocean currents, and marine biodiversity information.   - API Documentation:

5. USGS Climate and Land Use Change API:   - Data Offered: The USGS Climate and Land Use Change API provides access to climate change impacts on ecosystems, wildlife, land cover changes, and land use patterns.   - API Documentation:

6. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) API:   - Data Offered: CDIAC's API provides access to data on greenhouse gas emissions, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and other climate-related data.   - API Documentation:

7. UN World Meteorological Organization (WMO) API:   - Data Offered: The WMO API offers access to climate and meteorological data, including data on weather stations, climate normals, and extreme weather events.   - API Documentation:

Data sources: hidden gems

1. Global Forest Watch: This platform provides real-time data and interactive maps on global forest cover, deforestation, and forest restoration efforts. It is a valuable resource for monitoring the state of the world's forests and understanding deforestation trends.URL:

2. The Ocean Cleanup: This organization provides data on plastic pollution in the world's oceans, including the location and density of plastic debris. Their data helps raise awareness about the issue of marine plastic pollution and the need for solutions.URL:

3. Global Human Settlement Layer: This project offers data on human settlements and urban areas worldwide, providing insights into population density, land use changes, and urban growth.URL:

4. Global Fishing Watch: This platform offers data on global fishing activity and fishing vessel movements, helping monitor fishing practices and potential overfishing in marine areas.URL:

5. European Environmental Agency (EEA) Data Services: The EEA provides various datasets on air quality, water quality, biodiversity, and environmental indicators for Europe, aiding in environmental assessments and policy-making.URL:

6. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Arctic Sea Ice News and Analysis: This data resource provides updates on Arctic sea ice extent and conditions, crucial for understanding climate change impacts in polar regions.URL:

7. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS): GLDAS offers data on land surface conditions, soil moisture, and other land-related parameters, supporting climate research and water resource management.URL:

8. OpenAQ: This platform provides real-time and historical air quality data from thousands of locations worldwide, empowering individuals and communities to monitor air pollution levels.URL:

9. Climate Impact Lab: This research initiative combines climate and economic data to estimate the impacts of climate change on various sectors, such as agriculture, health, and the economy.URL:

10. The Nature Conservancy's Data Basin: This platform offers a wide range of environmental datasets and maps for conservation planning and research purposes.URL:

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